Jump to navigation Jump to search This article is about church councils held before the First Council of Nicaea. Church councils are formal meetings of bishops and representatives of several churches who are brought together to regulate points of doctrine or discipline. Pre-ecumenical councils, those earlier than AD conciliengeschichte, Volume 7 PDF, were mostly local or provincial. Some, held in the second half of the 3rd century, involved more than one province.
In spite of lacking the authority of the decisions of ecumenical councils, the teachings and decrees of these pre-ecumenical councils are sometimes considered to be binding on the faithful in varying degrees, in particular certain councils held in Carthage and Elvira. In times of greater toleration, Christian leaders felt sufficiently secure to hold councils governing their see or metropolitan area. None of the councils of this period gathered representatives from all the Christian churches, or even from those throughout the Roman Empire. Only of a few are the written acts preserved. Such councils began to appear only in the middle of the 2nd century, at first at local level, but from 175 onward they involved several communities together, with such activity particularly marked in Italy and Asia Minor.
At the end of that century, it became the practice to inform other communities of the decisions taken at such assemblies. The earliest known church councils were held in Asia Minor in the mid-2nd century. Sanctions include long delays before baptism, exclusion from the Eucharist for periods of months or years, or indefinitely, sometimes with an exception for the death-bed, though this is also specifically excluded in some cases. 451, when the Council of Chalcedon was held. Timothy Francis Murphy, Religious Bodies, 1936, vol. Cyprian: His Life, His Times, His Work, Macmillan and Company, p. A History of the Councils of the Church: from the original documents, Volume 1: « To the close of the Council of Nicæa, A.
325″, translated from German Conciliengeschichte by Wm. Prophets and Gravestones: An Imaginative History of Montanists and Other Early Christians, Peabody, MA: Hendrickson, pp. 36º vescovo di Roma e papa della Chiesa cattolica. Papa Giulio I morì il 12 aprile 352 e, secondo il Catalogo Liberiano, il suo successore, Liberio, fu consacrato il 22 maggio.
Poiché, però, il 22 maggio non era una domenica, è molto più probabile che Liberio fosse stato consacrato il 17. Dopo la morte di Costante I, avvenuta nel gennaio del 350, Costanzo II divenne il padrone dell’intero Impero romano. Dopo la sconfitta finale dell’usurpatore Magnenzio e la sua morte nel 353, Liberio chiese all’imperatore di riunire un concilio ad Aquileia, nel quale discutere la questione di Atanasio. Atanasio, che non l’aveva mai richiesta, fiutò la trappola, e non si mosse dalla sua sede. Nella primavera del 355 si tenne un concilio a Milano, presenziato da Eusebio di Vercelli in rappresentanza del papa.